Myopia, which is also known as shortsighted, has different types, symptoms and causes. Know details from an eye specialist. Read on.
Eyes are a very delicate part of the body and should be protected as much as possible. They are also prone to many eye disorders like myopia and hypermetropia. Myopia is a common eye condition that is also known as shortsightedness or nearsightedness. In some individuals, the length of the eyeball is a little longer than usual. So, because of that, the light rays which usually form at the level of the retina, form in front of the retina. Due to this reason, they develop blurry distant vision. they are able to see clear for near, but they won't be able to see clearly at distances. For that, they will require minus power glasses. In such cases, you can see objects near to you clearly, but objects farther away are blurry. A lot of people suffer due to this condition and have to wear glasses/lenses for the same. An eye doctor can also easily fix this problem by performing surgeries. Onlymyhealth editorial team spoke to Dr. Tushar Grover, Medical Director, Vision Eye Centre, Delhi, about the types, causes, symptoms and treatment for myopia or shortsighted.
Types of myopia
This eye disorder has mainly three types of myopia. They are divided on the basis of the degree of shortsightedness. A doctor can easily identify the type of myopia you might be suffering from. The most common forms of myopia are:
1. Simple Myopia
This is the most common type of myopia. Simple myopia is not considered as a visual disease and is less than 6 diopters. It can be easily fixed with the help of contact lenses or glasses.
2. High Myopia
Basically, high myopia is an eye disease where the patient exceeds 6 diopters. This eye disorder can be a huge risk for an individual as it leads to retinal detachment, retinal tear, glaucoma, and cataracts.
3. Pathological Myopia
When a person is so nearsighted that the back of the eye goes through degenerative changes, it is called pathological myopia. This is a severe and rare type of myopia. Fixing steps like contact lenses or glasses don't help in correcting blurry vision changes and other treatments also don't help with the symptoms.
Symptoms and signs indicating myopia vary from person to person. People may even squint their eyes to see better. You have to see an eye doctor or get an eye checkup, if you experience these signs. According to Dr. Tushar, the ptimary symptoms of myopia are:
1. Blurry vision
Children mostly complain of blurring for distant visions or difficulty in reading as to what is written on the blackboard in school. This is the most common and noticeable sign of myopia. One should get an eye checkup done in such situations.
2. Eye strain/squint
Whenever a person faces problem while looking at something or if the vision gets blurred, it puts strain on the eyes. A person tried to squint their eyes to see better. Eye strain can then lead on to other symptoms too. So, eye strain is also another major symptom of myopia.
3. Eye pain
Eye pain is also accompanied with blurry vision mostly. If you put strain on your eyes, it can also cause mild or severe pain in the eyes. The pain might get relieved after resting or sleeping, but can come back again once you try to see something from distance.
Just like eye pain, putting strain on the eyes can also result in minor headache. You should give little break to your eyes for relief. Headache can also be a common sign for myopia.
5. Difficulty while driving
Some people even face difficulty while driving. Distant sight gets blurred so it also interrupts while looking at traffic signals and other headlights. You should surely see an eye doctor in such cases.
6. Frequent rubbing and blinking of eyes
Frequent rubbing and blinking of eyes is also another symptom of myopia. Especially while looking at a distant object, it becomes natural to try and look better with the help of rubbing and blinking of eyes. So, this is also a reason of myopia.
Causes of Myopia
This occurs naturally because of an increase in the size of the eyeball. If you don't correct it with glasses or ignore it, you might give your eyes a lot of strain. For a more clear picture, here are the causes of myopia, as per Dr. Tushar Grover:
1. Genetic component
There is a strong genetic component to it. People who have myopia, their children also tend to have myopia. Genetic factor has a strong strong connection with myopia. A person can easily inherit gene mutation of myopia from an affected parent.
2. Excessive indoor work
One of the environmental causes which has been associated with myopia is excessive indoor work. People who indulge in a lot of outdoor activities are less likely to develop myopia. Therefore, excessive indoor work should be avoided or the eyes should be given rest to prevent myopia.
A basic eye exam can confirm nearsightedness. As per Dr. Tushar, at a younger age, the best way to treat myopia is with glasses (spherical glasses). Contact lenses are recommended for those who can take care of them. In fact, there is a surgical method to cure myopia known as Lasik surgery. The upcoming extremely common option is this eye surgery. It is a surgical way to permanently treat myopia, because it will correct the refractive errors. It is one of the safest surgeries of human body. However, it can only be done on people above 18 years of age and is only for those who have a stabilised power. The shape or thickness of the cornea is also observed for eligibility for the surgery. Myopia usually worsens till about the age of 18-19 until an individual grows. Just like the child grows in height, the size of the eye also grows. So, myopia also tends to increase upto that age, post which it starts to stabilize. Beyond 20-21 years of age, you will not see worsening of myopia.
These were the types, symptoms, causes and treatment of myopia. Regular eye exams are recommended for everyone. Dr. Tushar Grover said, "For a healthy eye, you also need a healthy body. So, a balanced diet is surely recommended. However, there are no environmental modifications that can take away your power, however small it is. People with myopia, they also are predisposed to the weakness in the retina (i.e the nerve of the eye), so they are at a higher risk of developing retinal detachment or tears. Therefore, it is very important for everybody who has myopia to get a yearly retina examination also."
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