There are numerous surgical procedures available for different problems and to cure variety of diseases. Some of these problems need to be eradicated before they lead to some serious illness or disease. Hysterectomy is one surgical procedure that takes place in the stomach to remove uterus of the person through incision in lower abdomen. This procedure is done when the underlying condition get to create health issues in the body, and delaying treatment may lead to cancer and various severe health problems. Even though this procedure is important, it does create pain, bleeding and hormonal fluctuations for first few months. Today we will look at different types of hysterectomy and their effects.
Why is Hysterectomy Performed?
According to Dr. Bindiya Khera, Senior Gynaecologist from Fatima Hospital, Lucknow, hysterectomy is performed to take out uterus from a woman’s body to prevent getting severe infection. There are many reasons to perform a hysterectomy, most of the women go through this process after their late 40’s when they are about to reach menopause. Because of certain conditions, fibrosis can occur in the uterus which can make it infected and even result to cancer is some cases. Other conditions that makes hysterectomy surgery necessary are-
- Abnormal bleeding
- Uterine fibrosis
- Gynaecologic cancer
- Chronic pain in pelvis
Depending on the condition and adversity of the situation, doctor may recommend partial hysterectomy or full hysterectomy. In partial hysterectomy, only the uterus is removed which is generally the case. Otherwise uterus along with cervix needs to be removed from the body.
Types of Hysterectomy Procedures
1. Total Hysterectomy
This type of hysterectomy is usually done when the condition becomes serious and becomes important to remove uterus and cervix both. Total hysterectomy is done in case where the fibrosis is affecting your reproductive system or there are chances of gynaecologic cancer in the body.
2. Supracervical hysterectomy
In this procedure, the surgery is done to remove the uterus but not cervix. This is also call partial hysterectomy in general terms. This is done in medical conditions where there is internal bleeding, fibrosis or endometriosis occurring in the body. Supracervical hysterectomy is most common among all the types of hysterectomy as the person is able to heal faster in this surgical process.
3. Radical Hysterectomy
This surgery is only performed in case of emergency situations where the underlying conditions become life-threatening for the person. In radical hysterectomy, uterus, cervix and surrounding tissues are removed in order to control infection. It is usually performed in case of cancer or severe uterine fibrosis etc.
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4. Hysterectomy with Oophorectomy
This is a surgical process in which hysterectomy is done to remove uterus along with one or both the ovaries. This whole procedure is done within a single surgery. Another addition to this is when the fallopian tubes are also removed in the process of hysterectomy. Hysterectomy with oophorectomy is done in minimal cases as it requires precision and the patient needs bed-rest for few months.
Side Effects of Hysterectomy Surgical Procedure
Side- effects of hysterectomy depend on the types of surgery that has been performed. Different types of hysterectomy have different side-effects. However some of the side-effects are common like-
- Heavy Pain
- Vaginal discharge
- Sudden Sweating
Hysterectomy without oophorectomy- Effects
Hysterectomy that does not involve removing or ovaries still has effects on ovaries because of surgery. Hysterectomies that spare ovaries may affect the woman at the time of menopause. This happens because this surgical procedure affects the blood supplies that goes to the ovaries and affect the reproductive system of the woman.
Hysterectomy with oophorectomy- Effects
When a person undergoes a hysterectomy that involves removal of ovaries, it reduces the amount of estrogens in the body. This means that women may experience menopause condition and symptoms even before she reaches menopause. This may affect her reproductive growth in some cases. Apart from that, the person may also experience these side-effects-
- Hot flashes
- Night sweats
- Vaginal dryness
- Difficulty in sleeping
- Mood swings
- Hair loss
- Weight gain
- Loss of bone density
- Rapid heartbeat
Durations of these symptoms and side-effects may vary from person to person. Due to sudden drop on estrogen levels, these symptoms become quite evident. In this case, your doctor may even recommend hormone replacement therapy to reduce these symptoms before menopause.
Precautions to take After Hysterectomy Procedure
A person who undergoes hysterectomy needs to take various precautions and avoid certain activities for around 4-6 weeks. Here are the activities you must avoid after your hysterectomy surgery-
- Do not lift heavy objects for 6 weeks
- Take rest and avoid heavy workouts for 6 weeks
- Do not drive for 2-3 weeks depending on pain and symptoms
- Do not insert anything inside the vagina for 8 weeks
- Do not bend much or try activities that put pressure on your stomach
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