The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. It requires very simple growth conditions to multiply and they are quite adaptable to survive in adverse conditions as well.
Inside the human body this bacteria multiplies even in the macrophage phagosome of lungs, which offers very harsh conditions for any microbial species. In these conditions the pathogen remains in a dormant phase for years. When body’s immune system becomes weak, the pathogen regains its activity and causes the disease. It is virulent because of its high resistance to antibiotics, high oxidatives and even to acidic and alkaline conditions.
The tuberculosis bacterium causes numerous complications which if left untreated, can prove to be fatal. Tuberculosis complications destroy the body’s immune system, making it sensitive to more bacterial attack.
Normally the pathogen infects the lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis, but it can affect other body parts also such as spinal cord, brain and kidneys. Depending on the site of infection, it is broadly classified as:
It is the tuberculosis of lungs and is the most prevalent kind of the disease. The bacteria colonise in the lungs and then destroy the living cells and tissues. Sores appear on the lungs and if left untreated, they turn into cavities.
It includes the tuberculosis of spines, bones, intestine and brain. They are further classified as:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a severely infectious agent and requires a very strict medical regimen for permanent cure. It’s better to prevent this disease by proper vaccination and regular checkups if suspected.
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