Many women suffer from various gynaecological issues, but many are unaware until the problem develops and hampers their daily lifestyle. According to a study published in the Indian Journal of Continuing Nursing Education, the prevalence of gynaecological problems in India was around 20.28%. All women had suffered from one or more gynaecological symptoms. Therefore, it is essential to understand the various procedures involved in diagnosing or treating a gynaecological problem. Hysteroscopy is a procedure that is performed for various gynaecological problems. Onlymyhealth editorial team spoke to Dr. (Prof) Vinita Das, Consultant & Advisor, Birla Fertility & IVF, about hysteroscopy procedure.
What is Hysteroscopy?
It is a gynaecological exam or procedure carried out to diagnose the inside of a uterus and cervix. It involves a thin and light tube with an inbuilt camera inserted through the vagina, projecting real-time video footage onto a screen for finer details by the doctor. This procedure is used for both diagnostic and surgical purposes. If any abnormalities or damages are detected during the diagnosis, it is recommended by the doctor to make an appointment for an operative hysteroscopy.
Operative hysteroscopy is done to correct the abnormal condition that has been detected in a diagnostic hysteroscopy. In, the diagnostic hysteroscopy, if an abnormal condition was detected, then an operative hysteroscopy can be done simultaneously, preventing the requirement for a second surgery. During operative hysteroscopy, small instruments are used to correct the condition and are inserted using the hysteroscope.
When should Hysteroscopy be performed?
- Women who experience regular abnormal bleeding during their menstrual cycle, in-between periods, or after menopause can identify the cause for the same through this examination
- To remove non-cancerous growths such as Polyps or Fibroids found in the uterus
- Scar tissues known as Adhesions might be present in the uterus; these may affect the menstrual flow and cause infertility. If present, the doctor will locate and remove the same through hysteroscopy.
- It is also used to diagnose repeated miscarriages and identify issues pertaining to infertility
- Replace or remove birth control devices like IUDs (An intrauterine device, also known as an intrauterine contraceptive device or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
- Determine whether a uterine septum, a type of malformation, is there in the uterus
Common symptoms post hysteroscopy procedure
Most commonly symptoms after a Hysteroscopy diagnosis might include mild cramping and some vaginal bleeding for a day or two. Shoulder pain could occur if carbon-di-oxide gas were used for easy tube insertion. Light dizziness and mild nausea may occur depending on the reaction of your body. Though complications are rare, some women might experience an aesthetical reaction, vaginal infections, some cervical tear, or damage (rarest of cases), abnormal reactions. Gas/fluids in the uterus, inflammation in the pelvic region, fever, heavy vaginal bleeding, and damage to organs like bowel or ovaries present nearby.
· Based on the type of anaesthesia given (local, regional, or general), the doctor will track the pulse and breathing until the body becomes stable
· Pain killers may be advised for the pain caused by the gas to subside. Based on your condition after the procedure, your doctor might recommend some additional prescriptions
· Most hysteroscopy examinations do not require any additional or special care but be sure to contact your doctor if any complications might occur during or after the course of the procedure
Hysteroscopy is generally regarded as a safe procedure as it usually requires a shorter stay at the clinic, has faster recovery times, intake of mild doses of pain-relief medicines, and the need to avoid hysterectomy and abdominal surgery.