Miscarriage in second trimester is quite uncommon. Second trimester in pregnancy lasts from 13 to 27 weeks and pregnancy loss during this period is very rare and unexpected.
Loss of pregnancy in second trimester is often quite indistinguishable from the first trimester pregnancy. Studies show that about 15 to 20% of second trimester miscarriages occur due to uterine malformation, fibroids or due to cervical and umbilical cord problems.
A number of reasons govern the pregnancy loss during second semester. Miscarriages that occur after 12 weeks can be due to chromosomal anomalies. These chromosomal abnormalities often occur during the first trimester. But when they failed to get detected, cause miscarriage in the second trimester.
Chronic health conditions - There are several chronic health conditions or diseases which can lead to miscarriage such as diabetes, severe high blood pressure (hypertension), kidney diseases, celiac disease, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and other autoimmune diseases. In autoimmune-induced miscarriage, the woman’s body attacks the growing foetus causing the miscarriage.
Infections - Infections may also increase the risk of miscarriage in second trimester due to premature rupture of membranes. Bacterial infections such as toxoplasmosis and vaginal infections known as bacterial vaginosis increase the risk of second semester miscarriage. Sexually transmitted infections such as AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhoea and Chlamydia also lead to miscarriage in second trimester. Even malarial and measles infection pose a risk for miscarriage.
Medicines - Some medicines such as misoprostol, retinoids, methotrexate and many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause a second trimester pregnancy loss.
Genetics - Chromosome abnormality in one or both parents results in a deformed embryo, which automatically leads to miscarriage.
Other factors -While there are many other governing factors of miscarriage but they can be avoided. Some of them are:
- Alcohol and drug use during pregnancy.
- Cigarette smoking during pregnancy.
- Exposure to dangerous chemicals.
- Heavy intake of caffeine during pregnancy.
- Any physical trauma during pregnancy.
- Low folic acid levels may also increase the risk of miscarriage.
Among not so well-known causes of a second trimester miscarriage include incompetent cervix, infections of the pelvic cavity or some other part of the body, heart defects of the foetus, thrombophilia disorders, placental abruption, and placenta previa.
There are many reasons which can lead to second trimester miscarriage. Some are avoidable and some prove to be fatal. The good part is that even if a woman had second trimester miscarriage, she can still have a successful pregnancy later on in her life.
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