During pregnancy, there is a high demand on the mother to provide sufficient calcium (along with other minerals and nutrients) to the foetus. The majority of foetal skeletal growth takes place from mid-pregnancy onwards, with maximum calcium accretion taking place in the last trimester. Calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy has to cater for about 30grams of calcium for the average foetus to mineralize its skeleton and maintain normal physiological processes.
Although this extra demand of calcium on the mother could interfere in her own bone mineralisation, pregnancy generally does not cause any adverse long-term consequence to the maternal skeleton. Bone metabolism increases significantly to provide for the skeleton of the foetus. For this reason, the expecting mother is advised to increase her intake of calcium.
If there is a deficiency in calcium intake during pregnancy, it may effect bone metabolism, cause hypertensive disorders or affect the foetal growth. It may also have a long-term effect on the maternal skeleton. The birth weight and the skeletal mass of the mother may also be affected. Therefore, nutrition rich in essential minerals like calcium is very important during pregnancy as lack of calcium may reduce neonatal bone density as well as size.
Calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy must adapt to the demand created by the foetus and the placenta. These together draw calcium and other minerals from the mother to enable the mineralisation of the foetal skeleton.
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