Occurrence of miscarriages is increasing day by day. To be able to fight this increase in the graph, we need to understand why miscarriages happen in the first place.
Reasons why miscarriage happen can be attributed broadly to: problems in the baby, the mother and the father, environmental factors, diseases or infections, lifestyle and age related issues, etc. Some of the prominent causes of miscarriage include the following.
Humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. One part of the pair comes from the mother and the other from the father. These pairs carry thousands of genes and if while conceiving, the cells split unevenly it might result in a miscarriage. ‘Inherited chromosomal re-arrangement’ can cause many defects and can come from either the mother or the father. This can result in an early miscarriage. A genetic cause that can lead to miscarriage is ‘gene mutation’. It can occur by itself or is inherited. In few females, natural killer (NK ) cells may reject the genetic material of the father (foreign body). The NK cells protect the body from bacteria and any other foreign body. Failure to conceive or miscarriage may happen due to this reason too. If problems related to reproduction runs in either of the families, conception may be difficult or miscarriage may be frequent.
Improper Implantation of Egg
If the egg is placed outside the uterus, which is termed as an ectopic pregnancy, there is a possibility of the person suffering from a loss of pregnancy.
Stress is considered the major reason why women have miscarriages. So, if the mother is under stress and pressure, it may lead to miscarriage.
Illness or Injury
- If the mother is sick and not healthy or is experiencing extremes of morning sickness and dehydration, then it’s a reason to worry.
- If the mother faces serious injury or accident or a harsh blow to the stomach, the baby's survival is risky.
- If the mother faces uterine malformation then miscarriages might happen.
- Problems relating to the blood type (Rh+, Rh-) of the parents which result in the formation of antibodies can lead to a miscarriage.
- Miscarriage can happen due to various diseases and infections such as endometriosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes, kidney and congenital heart, blood clotting disorders, syphilis, and gonorrhoea.
If the pregnant woman faces hormonal problems concerning her menstrual cycle, then it may create problems for her in conceiving.
If after a caesarean operation there are fibroids left in the mother's uterus, then it may complicate the process of getting pregnant again.
Excessive exercising and use of spas and sauna can also harm pregnancy. Frequent intake of pain relievers such as aspirin, and ibuprofen can add to the damage and may cause miscarriages. Diet related issues are one of the reasons. A poor diet has adverse effect on pregnancy. Drinking and smoking is injurious and should be avoided so that chances of a miscarriage are reduced. Increased intake of caffeine can cause miscarriages. Being overweight or underweight before and during pregnancy can pose problems. Environmental pollution can lead to abnormalities. In fact, exposure to harmful chemicals not only affects the female but also the male by affecting the sperm in the latter.
Most miscarriages are early miscarriages i.e. they occur in the first three months of pregnancy. It is best to be fully aware of all the factors that affect pregnancy and take necessary precautions.
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