World Hemophilia Day 2022: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment Of The Condition

With World Hemophilia Day 2022 around the corner, here are the types, symptoms, causes and treatment of hemophilia. Read on. 

Navya Kharbanda
Written by: Navya KharbandaPublished at: Apr 15, 2022Updated at: Apr 15, 2022
 World Hemophilia Day 2022: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment Of The Condition

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by an inherited inability for the blood to clot properly. This can result in spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following an injury or surgery. Hemophilia is caused by a mutation or change in one of the genes that give instructions on how to make the clotting factor proteins that help blood clot. Hemophiliacs have lower levels of factor VIII or factor IX in their blood. Hemophilia tends to occur in males due to a recessive change in the X chromosome. 

The genes in the X chromosome have one copy in males and two copies in females. As a result, if their biological mother is a carrier of the gene, males have a chance of developing hemophilia. Females who have one altered gene can become carriers and pass the disease on to their children. World Hemophilia Day is marked on April 17 every year to raise awareness about the condition. With World Hemophilia Day 2022 around the corner, Onlymyhealth editorial team spoke to Dr. Roshan Dikshit, Senior Consultant, Hematology and Bone Marrow transplant, Akash Healthcare, Dwarka, Delhi, to know about the symptoms, causes and treatment of hemophilia.

Types of Hemophilia

Hemophilia is divided into two types: type A and type B. Hemophilia A is a blood disorder caused by a lack of clotting factor VIII. Hemophilia type A is four times more common than hemophilia type B. Hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, is caused by a deficiency in the clotting factor IX. Hemophilia B affects about one out of every 25,000 males born around the world.

Also read: Haemophilia Blood Disorder: Know 7 Myths And Surprising Facts Behind This Disorder

Symptoms of Hemophilia

A person will most likely experience spontaneous nose bleeds, bleeding from the mouth or gums, easy bruising or hematomas, and excessive bleeding after dental or other surgical procedures or injury in mild cases. In people with the mild form, symptoms may not appear until they are well into adulthood.

Following surgeries or trauma, a person with moderate hemophilia may experience easy and excessive bruising as well as excessive bleeding. By the time a child is five or six years old, doctors can usually diagnose a moderate case.

A person with severe hemophilia may experience spontaneous bleeding, which usually occurs in the muscles or joints. This can cause discomfort and swelling. It can lead to arthritis in the affected joints if not treated. When a person is an infant, doctors can often diagnose severe cases.

Diagnosis of Hemophilia

Hemophilia is diagnosed through a combination of symptoms, clinical evaluation, personal medical history, and another diagnostic testing. Blood tests can reveal how long it takes for blood to clot, the levels of clotting factors in the blood, and which clotting factors are missing if any. The results of blood tests can also be used to determine the type of hemophilia and its severity.

Treatments for Hemophilia

Despite the fact that there is no cure for hemophilia, doctors can successfully treat the condition. The goal of treatment is to replace the missing protein while also preventing complications. It entails administering or replacing clotting factors that are deficient or absent. We can get clotting factors for replacement therapy from human blood or make them synthetically in the lab. 

Also read: Hemophilia Symptoms: These 3 Conditions Could Be Possible Indicators Of Hemophilia

Recombinant clotting factors are synthetically produced factors. Using DNA technology, this concentrate has been genetically engineered. Furthermore, because recombinant factors VIII (8) and IX (9) do not contain plasma or albumin, they are incapable of transmitting bloodborne viruses. Recombinant clotting factors are often the first treatment option for doctors because they reduce the risk of transmitting infections that can be found in human blood. 

Prophylactic and demand therapy are two types of replacement therapy. People with severe forms of Hemophilia A receive prophylactic treatment on a regular basis. Mild hemophiliacs may only require demand therapy, which is a treatment that doctors administer only when bleeding becomes uncontrollable. Other treatment options include bypassing agents, which are used to treat bleeding episodes in people who have high titer inhibitors; products that mimic Factor VIII; and Immune Tolerance Induction Therapy (ITI).