Dengue virus can cause fever of different severity and in rare cases, lead to complex situation such as dengue hemorrhagic fever.
When the different strains of dengue virus interact with the immune system of different people, it can cause complex interactions resulting in conditions such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome.
Genetics of Dengue Virus
The genome of dengue virus consists of seven non-structured proteins and three structural proteins.
Non-structural proteins- NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b and NS5
Structural proteins-envelope protein E, membrane protein M and capsid protein C
- E protein- E protein is found on the upper most surface of dengue virus. It is responsible for the initial entrance of virus to the host cell. Other responsible factors for viral entry to the host cell include CD209, Rab 5, GRP 78 and the mannose receptor.
- prM/M protein- prM (membrane) protein plays an important role in the formation of viral particles. Once the dengue virus is fully formed, it develops 180 copies of E protein and M protein. E protein acts as a shell wherein M protein acts as a transmembrane. The prM/M protein stay closely associated with the formed E protein till the time dengue virus actually enters the extra cellular environment. Moreover, pr peptide covers the loop of e-protein until the viral particles stay inside the cell.
- NS3 protein- NS3 of dengue virus is serine protease that consists of six β-strands and two β-barrels that are formed by protein residue.
- NS5 protein- DENV NS5 protein is a residue peptide. It has methyltransferase domain at its N-terminal end and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at its C-terminal end.
A person who has been previously infected with dengue is more prone to its severe form. This happens as the antibodies meant for the old strain now start interfering in response of immune to the current restrain, thus facilitating dengue virus entry to the body.
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