Kidney stones can form in any person but people with certain diseases and conditions are more likely to develop kidney stones. Read to know who is at risk of kidney stones.
- Age: Urinary stones form most commonly found in people between 20 to 49 years of age, and people who develop stones during their second or third decade of life, are prone to the recurrence of kidney stones.
- Hereditary: Risk of kidney stones is higher in people with a family history of stones .i.e. if one or both your parents had kidney stones you are at higher risk of developing kidney stones. Some stones have a tendency to occur in family members over several generations.
- Race: Asians and Caucasians are at higher risk of developing kidney stones than Native Americans, Africans, or African Americans.
- Region: Kidney stones are more common in people living in developed countries where as bladder stones are the most common in residents of developing areas of the world. This difference is probably related to different dietary habits.
- Diet: Some dietary factors which probably increase the risk of stone formation in susceptible individuals include inadequate fluid intake (which can predispose one to dehydration), high intake of animal protein, high-salt diet, excessive sugar consumption, excessive vitamin D supplementation, and excessive intake of oxalate-containing foods such as spinach.
- Sex: Urinary tract stones are more common in males as compared to females (three times more common). The risk starts to increase when men reach their 40s, and it continues to climb into their 70s.
- Medications: Some medications such as diuretics, calcium-containing antacids, and the HIV medication indinavir increase the risk of kidney stones.
- Medical conditions: Several medical conditions increase the risk for developing kidney stones. Medical conditions which increase the risk of kidney stones are:
- Hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine).
- Kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis.
- Inherited metabolic conditions, including cystinuria and hyperoxaluria.
- Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Inflammatory bowel disease.
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