What Causes Borderline Personality Disorder? Know Symptoms And Treatment Options

Borderline Personality Disorder can make your life worse and cause serious harm to mental health. Know these conditions to prevent yourself.

Puru Bansal
Written by: Puru BansalPublished at: May 21, 2021Updated at: May 21, 2021
What Causes Borderline Personality Disorder? Know Symptoms And Treatment Options

A person suffering from any kind of mental disorder can be unpredictable. The symptoms can continue to build up in any mental health disorder really quick which then becomes difficult for that person to live a normal life. Borderline Personality Disorder is also one such serious condition where the person experiences sudden change in mood, habits and energy. Today, let us understand the cause, symptoms and complications of borderline personality disorder in detail. Dr.Tanu Singh, Psychologist from Healthcare Clinic, Lucknow, who has been dealing with patients with similar conditions, will share her insights on how borderline personality disorder progresses and its causes and symptoms.

Borderline Personality Disorder

It is a mental condition where the person suffers from varied episodes of high and low mood swings. There are changes in habits like sleeping pattern, focus ability and other relationship aspects of life. Borderline personality disorder could cause instability in the person and disrupt his/her way of thinking. Person with this disorder no longer behaves in the same way and his personality traits often keep changing. The person may face psychosis including delusions, self-harm and inappropriate anger issues. 


There are periods where the person may feel stable especially going through therapy treatment but it is not clear to persist for long. Borderline Personality Disorder causes continuous inflation and deflation of mood. This makes the person difficult to treat and study his recovery time.

What Causes Borderline Personality Disorder?

The proper cause of it is still not known but there are few probable causes which results in borderline personality disorder. They are- 

Genetics- If any of your family members or siblings has borderline personality disorder then it is possible that you could also develop this condition. However this disorder does not always affect family members, such cases have been very less.

Brain Structure- If there are any abnormalities in your brain structure then it can increase your risk towards this disorder. Brain structure affects the functioning of the body.

Environmental Factors- These include conditions which can affect you externally, this can include-

  • Extreme stress
  • Traumatic experience 
  • Abusive environment
  • Neglectful and unstable conditions in childhood

Serotonin Abnormalities- It is a hormone that helps in regulating mood. Abnormality in serotonin production may cause borderline personality disorder to develop. 

Borderline personality disorder can be caused by combination of these factors or even with extreme effect of one of these factors. 

9 Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

Since if affects your personality traits, it makes you feel different about how you behave or feel about other.

  1. Having intense fear of abandonment
  2. Taking extreme steps to avoid separation in real or imagined world
  3. Having a pattern of unstable relationships- change in opinion about a person
  4. Changes in self identity and image
  5. Periods of stress related to paranoia or loss of reality
  6. Impulsive and risky behaviour- reckless driving, gambling, unsafe sex, binge eating or drug abuse
  7. Suicidal thoughts and self injury 
  8. Uncertain mood swings- extreme happiness, irritability, shame or anxiety
  9. Inappropriate anger, losing temper, having bitter feelings and physical fights


Complications of Borderline Personality Disorder

This disorder can damage many prominent aspects of your life to an extent from where it can be difficult to recover. The negative aspect of borderline disorder affects intimate relationships, work, jobs, school, social life and self-image. Hence it is important to understand the complications it can have on your life.

  • Repeated loss of jobs
  • Not completing education
  • Multiple legal issues or jail time
  • Conflict in relationships, divorce and martial issues
  • Self-harm such as cutting or burning and frequent hospitalization
  • Unplanned pregnancies, STDs, infections, and fights 
  • Frequent accidents and road rash
  • Suicidal attempts

Also Read- How Can Obesity Cause Lower Resting SPO2 Levels In The Body?

Borderline Personality Disorder can also lead the person into multiple mental health disorders which may even complicate the situation such as-

  1. Depression
  2. Drug abuse or alcohol abuse
  3. Eating disorders
  4. Bipolar disorder
  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  7. Anxiety disorder

Treatment Options For BPD Patients

There are majorly three treatment options which your mental health professional may suggest you for treating Borderline Personality Disorder. It can be psychotherapy, medication or hospitalisation. 

Hospitalisation is done at the situation when the person starts harming himself or abusing people around them. This is a severe situation which can cause damage to his life and people around him. Hence hospitalisation is the only choice left at that stage.

Medications- Some medicines can help to reduce the symptoms of this disorder, but they do not prevent it totally. Medications are given along psychotherapy for better treatment. These medications may include- 

  • Antidepressants 
  • Antipsychotics for aggressive symptoms
  • Anti-anxiety pills 


Psychotherapy- Psychotherapy is the main treatment for borderline personality disorder. This includes targeted therapy sessions depending on the person’s behaviour. The types of therapies are-

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) - This helps to reduce unhealthy beliefs and behaviours in the person. It tries to correct the perception of the person and how to react to different situations.

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) – This helps to improve the recognition patterns, awareness of issues, and other behavioural issues. 

Schema-focussed therapy- It helps in creating a positive mindset of the patient of borderline personality disorder to provide a good path for improvement.

Also Read- Types And Causes Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Borderline Personality Disorder can be very troublesome for the patient and ruin his life conditions. It affects the relationships, behaviour, mood and social life of the person. The person loses his control over emotions making him vulnerable to self-harm, suicidal thoughts, substance abuse and abusive behaviour among others. All this also results to other mental disorders which complicate the situation. Hence it is important to know about the symptoms, complications and treatment methods to be aware of borderline personality disorder. Consult your mental health expert if you find any of these symptoms happening with people around you.

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