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Hepatomegaly: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Hepatomegaly, derived from the Greek words "hepar" (liver) and "megas" (enlargement), refers to the abnormal enlargement of the liver.

Sambhav Kumar
Written by: Sambhav KumarUpdated at: May 30, 2023 13:47 IST
Hepatomegaly: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

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The complexity of the human body is difficult to understand, with each organ serving a unique purpose to ensure our overall well-being. Among these vital organs, the liver stands as a silent hero that performs countless metabolic processes to keep our bodies functioning optimally. But when the liver itself becomes the subject of abnormality, it gives rise to a condition known as hepatomegaly. 

The liver acts as a chemical factory, performing tasks such as metabolising nutrients, detoxifying harmful substances, producing bile for digestion, storing vitamins and minerals, and regulating blood sugar levels. It is an essential organ that contributes significantly to our overall health and well-being. To know more about hepatomegaly, we reached out to Dr Gaurav Gupta, Senior Consultant & Chief Surgeon - Liver Transplant & HPB Surgery, Fortis Hospital, Mulund(Mumbai). 

What Is Hepatomegaly?

Hepatomegaly, derived from the Greek words "hepar" (liver) and "megas" (enlargement), refers to the abnormal enlargement of the liver beyond its standard size and weight. This condition is not a disease in itself, but rather a manifestation of an underlying medical condition.

A healthy liver weighs about 3 pounds (1.3 kg), according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatomegaly occurs when the size of the liver increases owing to a variety of reasons.

Causes of Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly can be caused by a multitude of factors, that includes: 

  • Viral infections such as hepatitis
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Certain medications
  • Genetic disorders
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Even heart failure

The liver's response to these underlying conditions is to increase in size, attempting to compensate for the disturbances and maintain its functionality.

Also read: 8 Tips To Avoid Fatty Liver Disease

Symptoms Of Hepatomegaly

Symptoms of hepatomegaly may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Fatigue
  • Jaundice
  • Nausea, and unintentional weight loss

In some cases, hepatomegaly may be entirely asymptomatic, making it challenging to diagnose without proper medical evaluation.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Upon suspicion of hepatomegaly, a healthcare professional may recommend a range of diagnostic tests. These tests can include blood work to assess liver function, imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI, and sometimes a liver biopsy to determine the underlying cause of the enlargement. 

Once the cause is identified, the treatment plan is to address the root cause while managing the symptoms. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes, medication, surgical interventions, or, in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Beyond Medical Intervention

While medical intervention is crucial for the management of hepatomegaly, it is equally important to emphasise preventative measures and lifestyle modifications. These may include maintaining a healthy diet, limiting alcohol consumption, avoiding exposure to harmful substances, regular exercise, and managing underlying health conditions. By adopting a holistic approach, individuals can significantly reduce the risk of hepatomegaly and its associated complications.

Also read: Irreversible Liver Damage: How Lifestyle Changes Could Be The Reason


With its intricate causes, diverse manifestations, and multifaceted diagnostic methods, hepatomegaly challenges doctors to unravel its mysteries. By deepening our understanding of this condition and embracing comprehensive approaches to prevention and treatment, we can strive towards promoting liver health and safeguarding the well-being of individuals around the globe.