Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis causes inflammation in the brain and spinal cord that damages the protective covering of the nerve fibers. It is common during viral or bacterial infections, vaccination for measles, mumps or rubella.
some of the common signs and symptoms of ADEM include:
ADEM may damage the white matter of the brain resulting in neurological symptoms such as loss of vision in one or both the eyes, weakness till the point of paralysis, difficulty in coordinating voluntary muscle movements.
The goal of the treatment is to suppress the inflammation in the brain using the anti-inflammatory drugs. Several days of intravenous corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone, followed by oral conrticosteroid treatment is quite effective. But when these corticosteroids don’t work on, the secondary treatment is done which includes either a plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. However, all these additional treatments are symptomatic and supportive.
The corticosteroid therapy is effective in treating the symptoms of ADEM symptoms. Some may recover within days of the treatment and within six months they will be fully recovered while others might have mild to moderate lifelong impairment. These impairments may include cognitive difficulties, weakness, and loss of vision or numbness.
This rare neurological disorder mainly affects children. But it can affect anyone.
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