World AIDS Day 2021: Know About These 7 Stages Of HIV AIDS Infection

HIV Aids has different stages in which it infects your body. Here are some important stages of cycle of HIV you must know

Written by: Puru Bansal Updated at: 2021-11-30 10:45

HIV is a severe infection which is spread through various reasons. This is a transmissible virus which infects other people which there are some type of sexual or blood contact. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic problem which can potentially be life threatening at times. It affects your immune system and minimizes ability of your body to fight with infections and diseases. This is a sexually transmitted disease which can be categorized into various stages. Most people are unaware of these stages of HIV; hence today we will try to inform you about them.

What are Primary stages of HIV?

So people mostly take HIV Aids as one disease but it is not. We spoke to Dr. Sumeet Nigam, General Physician from Sahara Hospital about this issue, he told us the there are 3 primary stages of HIV. It consists of acute HIV, chronic HIV and AIDS. It is the last stage where the person is said to be infected with HIV Aids and rest all are low levels of HIV infection. Here are primary stages of HIV-

Acute HIV- This consists for a large amount for HIV present in the blood. In this stage some people develop flu-like symptoms such as chills, fever, and sore throat. It is less likely that acute HIV could cause threat to your life, but it is one of the first stages of HIV. The exposure to HIV is visible after a few weeks in most conditions.

Chronic HIV- In this stage of HIV, the symptoms are not at the stage where you feel them growing. This is the worse part about this stage because a person remains unaware of his health situation and HIV replicates at a low level. This means the infections starts spreading in the body slowly spread through the body.

AIDS- This is the last or the final stage in which the HIV breaks through your immune system and impairs it. HIV Aids is the disease which counts under CD4 which means 200 cells per cubic millimeter in blood. This is quite a serious condition, and people should get themselves diagnosed as early as possible.

What are the Stages of HIV Cycle?

There are basically 7 stages under which HIV cycle can be categorized. This depends on the infection rate, potential threat, and active virus cells present in the body.

1. Binding Stage

HIV is an infection which falls under the category of retroviruses. This group of viruses is challenging and hard to get rid of. Binding stage is where the virus binds with the receptors and it integrates with the DNA. In this stage the white cells present in the body warn the neuron receptors about possible threat of infection in the body.

2. Fusion Stage

In the fusion stage of HIV the genetic information present in the virus actually interacts or gets infused with membrane of CD4 cells. This is done through use of glycoprotein which carries different molecules to chains of carbohydrates and proteins. HIV is an enveloped virus which carries a type of genetic information in a protein shell. This layer of protein is made of lipid proteins which interact with chains of carbohydrates.

3. Reverse Transcription

This is a stage where the person starts recovering from genetic information in the form of RNA and DNA. RNA and DNA are two types of genetic information but are different in structures. This is because RNA is made up of long genetic chains whereas DNA is double strand. Virus actually converts or transforms itself into DNA by releasing an enzyme in the body called as reverse transcriptions. Therefore this stage is named as reverse transcription stage of HIV Aids.

4. Integration

Integration stage is where RNA converts into DNA by releasing another enzyme inside the nucleus of the CD4 cell. This is different from reverse transcription because this is advance stage of that process, where the virus enters nucleus of the cell. Because of this it combines with DNA of the body and infects that person permanently. Even after infecting the person, the symptoms remain undetected and hence it is difficult to know about the virus.

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5. Replication stage of HIV

Replication of cells happens at this stage where the person also starts feeling change in his/her body. This is because the machinery of cells generates viral proteins that produce genetic materials in the body. It makes the virus stronger and infection starts to spread in the form of viral particles gradually at this stage. 

6. Assembly

In this stage of HIV infection, the particles of RNA are sent to the edge of your CD4 cells. HIV infects your cells and converts them into virus cells at this stage. The rate of infection increases in the body and the person may become HIV infected at a serious stage. However in the assembly stage, the virus remains non infectious to other people in the current form of operations.

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7. Budding Stage

Budding is the last and severe stage of HIV infection. In this stage, the immature virus pushes out the CD4 cells out of the system. This is the last stage where HIV infection gains control over the system of the body and releases the enzyme called protease. This enzyme is responsible to modify the protein cells in the virus and make it more infectious in nature. The person may lose his immunity at this level which makes it harder for them to recover. Budding stage also turns the person infectious, hence increases his ability to spread HIV virus.

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