Urethral cancer is a rare type of cancer which affects urethra of males and females. It is more common in women as compared to men. The urethra is a hollow tube that allows the flow of urine from the bladder. Men have approximately six inches long urethra which passes out through the prostate and member. It opens to the outside at the end of the member while in women it is around one and half inches long and opens outside just above the vaginal opening.
Although the exact cause of the condition still not known but the chronic inflammation and infection have been believed to increase the risk of developing urethral cancer. Many men with this condition have previously been treated for urethral stricture disease or sexually transmitted diseases while women with this condition have been treated with urethral caruncle, urethral diverticulum or chornic urinary tract infection. The presence of human papilloma virus has been linked with urethral cancer.
In initial stage the symptoms are usually few but as the growth of the cancer increases the lump or growth starts to appear on the urethra.
Other symptoms may include
The treatment options for urethral cancer have been divided into three categories: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In surgical operations, the tumour is removed by inserting an instrument called cystoscope into the urethra. Ratiation therapy is done to destroy the cancer cells with high energy radiation. It may be used alone or along with chemotherapy or surgery. Chemotherapy is usually done in situations when the urethra has escaped the urethra.
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