Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a defect that occurs since birth. In this condition, the structure that connects the two hemispheres of the brain is partially or completely missing. This condition can occur as a separate condition or in combination with other cerebral abnormalities, including Arnold-Chiari malformation, Dandy-Walker syndrome, Andermann syndrome, schizencephaly and holoprosencephaly. This disorder can be associated with malformations in other body parts also, like midline facial defects. The effects of the disorder can range from subtle, mild or severe depending on the abnormalities of the brain.
There is no standard treatment available for ACC. It usually involves management of symptoms and seizures if they appear.
The prognosis for ACC depends on the severity of the malformations. The condition is not fatal and the mental retardation does not worsen with time. Though many children who suffer from the disorder have average intelligence and can lead normal lives but, neuropsychological testing can show little differences in higher cortical function compared to individuals of the same age and education without ACC.
When there is a disruption of the fetal brain between the 3rd and 12th weeks of pregnancy, it can cause ACC. In most cases the cause of ACC or any callosal disorder may not be known in an individual. But, the research suggests that in some the cause may include chromosome errors, inherited genetic factors, prenatal infections or injuries.
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