Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a rare neurological movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system. It is an inherited disorder.
The symptoms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation vary greatly among patients and the symptoms usually develop during childhood. The symptoms associated with the condition include slow writhing, distorting muscle contractions of the limbs, face, or trunk and choreoathetosis (involuntary, purposeless jerky muscle movements).
Among other characteristics of the condition are muscle rigidity (uncontrolled tightness of the muscles), spasticity (sudden, involuntary muscle spasms), ataxia (inability to coordinate movements), confusion, disorientation, seizures, stupor, and dementia.
As of now, there is no cure for NBIA or a standard treatment procedure. The treatment is symptomatic and may include physical or occupational therapy, exercise physiology, and/or speech pathology.
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