Severe congenital heart defects are generally found during pregnancy or soon after birth. Less severe defects aren't diagnosed until children are older.
Minor defects often have no signs or symptoms and are diagnosed based on results from a physical exam and tests done for another reason.
Doctors who specialize in the care of babies and children who have heart problems are called pediatric cardiologists. Cardiac surgeons are other specialists who treat heart defects. These doctors repair heart defects using surgery.
During a physical exam, the doctor will:
Echocardiography (echo) is a painless test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. During the test, the sound waves (called ultrasound) bounce off the structures of the heart. A computer converts the sound waves into pictures on a screen.
Echo allows the doctor to clearly see any problem with the way the heart is formed or the way it's working.
Echo is an important test for both diagnosing a heart problem and following the problem over time. In children who have congenital heart defects, echo can show problems with the heart's structure and how the heart is reacting to these problems. Echo will help your child's cardiologist decide if and when treatment is needed.
During pregnancy, if your doctor suspects that your baby has a congenital heart defect, a fetal echo can be done. This test uses sound waves to create a picture of the baby's heart while the baby is still in the womb.
The fetal echo usually is done at about 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. If your child is diagnosed with a congenital heart defect before birth, your doctor can plan treatment before the baby is born.
An EKG is a simple, painless test that records the heart's electrical activity. The test shows how fast the heart is beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular). It also records the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart.
An EKG can detect if one of the heart's chambers is enlarged, which can help diagnose a heart problem.
Chest X Ray
A chest x ray is a painless test that creates pictures of the structures in the chest, such as the heart and lungs. This test can show whether the heart is enlarged or whether the lungs have extra blood flow or extra fluid, a sign of heart failure.
Pulse oximetry shows how much oxygen is in the blood. For this test, a small sensor is attached to a finger or toe (like an adhesive bandage). The sensor gives an estimate of how much oxygen is in the blood.
During cardiac catheterisation (KATH-e-ter-i-ZA-shun), a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is put into a vein in the arm, groin (upper thigh), or neck and threaded to the heart.
Special dye is injected through the catheter into a blood vessel or a chamber of the heart. The dye allows the doctor to see the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels on an x-ray image.
The doctor also can use cardiac catheterisation to measure the pressure and oxygen level inside the heart chambers and blood vessels. This can help the doctor determine whether blood is mixing between the two sides of the heart.
Cardiac catheterisation also is used to repair some heart defects.
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