Dengue Serology Test is used for identification of the virus that causes this disease. It makes use of immunofluorescence techniques that employ anti-dengu antibodies on infected cells or squashed head of mosquitoes. The Plaque test is used for quantifying the concentration of dengue virus. Recent reports state that another method called the Flow cytometry has been very useful in identification of dengue virus. It helps to identify the dengue virus 10 hours earlier than assessment of dengue serology through immunofluorescence.
Dengue Serology Tests
Mac ELISA – This is earliest serological testing for dengue and it is based on capturing anti-dengue antibodies in serum samples. The antigens used in this test are extracted from dengue virus protein. The one big limitation of this method is that results can be variable due to the possibility of reaction between the antigens and circulating flavivirus.
IgG Elisa - The classic IgG ELISA used for detecting a past infection of dengue employs the same antigens as MAC-ELISA. This method does not completely solve the problem found in Mac Elisa. The problem of reacting to flaviviruses is limited in the case of IgG. Only some flavivirus cloud true result by reacting to IgG. Another advantage of this test is that IgG avidity ELISAs can also be used to determine the primary and secondary nature of a dengue infection.
IgM/IgG Ratio - The IgM/IgG ratio is used for differentiating primary dengue infections from secondary ones.
Plaque Reduction Neutralisation Test and Microneutralisation Procedure (PRNT) – This is a method of dengue serology which evaluates the immune system of the infected person to know how protected he was against the disease. Some tests are carried out based on the understanding of interaction between virus and antibody.
Microneutralisation is a dengue test similar to PRNT but with a slightly different procedure.
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