Pain can occur after an injury (a fall, a broken bone), in case of an illness (flu, toothache, headache, ear pain), or may be a sign of a serious disorder (such as appendicitis). The nerve cells at the site of the damage, infection or injury sense pain and send a signal to the brain, which perceives it and elicits a response.
The body structures involved in pain transmission includes
Transmission of the pain message from the nerve endings to the brain is regulated by substances called mediators and hormones. The mediators sensitize the receptors to pain, whereas the hormones (prostaglandins) trigger or increase the painful sensation. They cause inflammation and fever as well.
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