It is a common and mostly sought after method of contraception by women. Birth-control pills contain synthetic female hormones which are estrogen and progesterone. These hormones avert pregnancy by preventing release of eggs from the ovaries and making the cervical mucous denser resulting in prevention of sperm from entering uterus. The hormones also alter the wall lining of the uterus making it reject the egg. Various brands of birth control pills are available in the markets which are of different constitution and strength. You can consult your gynecologist which oral contraceptive would suit you and strictly follow the schedule of taking the pills. Failure rate ranges from one to three percent.
These pills can cause the following side-effects; weight gain, breast tenderness, nausea, spotting in between menstrual cycles, headaches, high blood pressure, blood clots and depression. No protection from STDs can be acquired from this method. These pills have some benefits such as reducing “heavy” flow during menstruation, reducing menstrual cramps, improving acne, reducing risks of cancer in the ovaries and uterus.
These shots or injections contain the female hormone called progesterone. Injectable contraceptives (ICs) are given at one time every three months. In the markets, there are two types of contraceptives or ICs available, the first one is called Depo provera and the other is called Noristerat. They work in the same fashion as oral pills do, that is by stopping ovulation, thickening cervical mucous and changing the atmosphere of the uterus. They are quite effective. Women with history of stroke, breast cancer, liver and kidney diseases should not be given these injections. Depo vera can cause loss in bone density. Consult your gynecologist before taking these shots to weigh the pros and cons.
They are thin square patches which are worn on the skin on the abdomen, upper body or arm and buttocks. They contain the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone which are released through the skin into the bloodstream. The hormones have the same effect as they do in the oral pills, thereby preventing pregnancy. They do not provide any protection from STDs. Availability of this contraception in the markets might be difficult.
It involves inserting a small flexible rod under the skin surface. It releases little amounts of hormone progesterone into the bloodstream and stops ovulation. It is effective for a period of three to five years. It carries certain risks with it such as scarring while insertion, abnormal bleeding and headaches. It is a debatable form of contraception and is expensive too.
A surgical procedure called tubal ligation is performed during which fallopian tubes of women are surgically severed or blocked to prevent pregnancy. It is a permanent, non-reversible procedure and should be undertaken only if you wish to have no more children. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. Risks involve bleeding and infection, though chances are few. Sexual function of a woman is not affected by this procedure.
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