Every form of diabetes elevates long-term health complications. The most prevalent complications are risk of cardiovascular diseases and damage to blood vessels. In addition to these, diabetes also increases the risk ‘macrovascular complications’, which is associated with the small blood vessels. Diabetic subjects are reported with cardiovascular conditions such as uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Due to their correlation, diabetes is sometimes classified as a cardiovascular disease.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetic disorder makes an appearance later in the life owing to impairment in insulin resistance and defective secretion of insulin by pancreatic ß-cells. Insulin resistance declines with age, developing from obesity and lack of physical activity. The impairment is accompanied by cardiovascular complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and prothrombotic factor. Gradually, it develops into a metabolic syndrome, which is the development stage of Type 2 Diabetes.
Epidemiological and pathological findings reveal that diabetes is an independent risk factor for CVD in both men and women. Women in particular, lose inherent protection against developing cardiovascular disease. In other words, diabetics developing clinical cardiovascular diseases have a worse prognosis for survival than cardiovascular patients without diabetes.
Risk Assessment in Diabetic Patients
All the factors should be accounted for risk reduction in persons with diabetes. Major risk factors such as cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, abnormal serum lipids and lipoproteins and hyperglycemia should be considered. Moreover, predisposing risk factors like abdominal obesity, physical inactivity and family history of CVD should be identified as well. Diabetics that smoke are vulnerable to risk of narrowing of blood vessels. So, there is a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases due to smoking habit of diabetics.
Precise testing such as monitoring ambulatory blood pressure by automated techniques besides lipoprotein analysis to track cholesterol concentration and atherogenic dyslipidemia should be done.
Managing Diabetes for Limiting Risk of CVD
Type 2 diabetes arises after years of metabolic stress along with disproportionate insulin resistance. The diabetic condition become worse when ignored. Therefore, a lifelong commitment to healthy diet, regular sugar monitoring and physical training are the requisites for a healthy life in a diabetic condition. Regular interventions along with compliance of health guidelines delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, reducing the risk for cardiovascular diseases.
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