Anorexia nervosa is a common eating disorder. It affects about 1% to 5% of the population and occurs mostly in women between the age group of 13 and 30 (about 90% to 95% cases). Anorexia nervosa, however, can affect any age group and even males. The symptoms or criteria needed to make a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa are:
The main symptom of anorexia is deliberately losing a lot of weight, although there are often a number of other physical and psychological signs of a problem.
A person with anorexia will want to weigh as little as possible – much less than is healthy for their age and height. They are so afraid of gaining weight they cannot eat normally.
In an attempt to lose weight, they may:
They may also take laxatives or diuretics (medication that helps remove fluid from the body), although in reality these have little effect on calories absorbed from food.
People with anorexia often believe their value as a person hinges on their weight and how they look. They may think others will like them more or they will feel happier if they are thinner and see their excessive weight loss in a positive way.
They often have a distorted view of what they look like, thinking they look fat when they are not.
Others may try to hide how thin they are by wearing loose or baggy clothes.
Many people also practise a type of behaviour known as "body checking", which involves persistently and repeatedly:
People with anorexia also usually have low self-esteem or self-confidence. They may withdraw from relationships, become distant from family and friends, and lose interest in activities they previously enjoyed.
Anorexia can also affect the person's school work or how well they perform their job.
In children with anorexia, puberty and the associated growth spurt may be delayed. They may gain less weight than expected – if any – and may be smaller than others of the same age.
Women and older girls with anorexia may stop having their periods (known as amenorrhoea, or absent periods).
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