Stroke Caused by High Blood Pressure

By  , Expert Content
Feb 25, 2011

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Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. According to studies the prevalence of stroke in India is about 203 cases per 100,000 population above 20 years which amounts to about 1 million cases. The commonest cause of stroke worldwide is high blood pressure. This makes high blood pressure or hypertension the single most important risk factor.


What is Stroke?


A stroke can be defined as a sudden loss of brain function due to interruption of the blood supply to the brain. It is caused by an acute vascular event such as interruption of the blood supply (ischemic strokes) and/or bleeding into the brain tissue (hemorrhagic strokes). Interruption of the blood supply results in deficiency of oxygen and other nutrients to the brain tissue. As the brain tissues use oxygen at an exceptionally high rate, interruption of the oxygen and other nutrients to the brain even for a few seconds or minutes can cause extensive damage and potentially serious complications.


Blood Supply to the Brain


Blood supply to the brain can be interrupted because of:

  • A block by a clot or other debris in the blood vessel that supplies the brain ---that is ischemic stroke. This type of stroke is more common (85 % of all strokes are of ischemic stroke)
  • Rupture of the blood vessel/vessels in the brain which leads to bleeding into the brain tissue and interruption of blood supply to tissues located after the point of rupture---that is hemorrhagic stroke

Both these are potentially serious and can cause extensive damage and potentially serious complications.


The Influence of High Blood Pressure


The risk stroke due to high blood pressure is directly related to the level of blood pressure---that is higher the blood pressure higher is the risk of stroke. The risk of stroke is lesser in patients with well controlled blood pressure as compared to patients with poorly controlled blood pressure.


Warning Signs of Stroke


The signs and symptoms of stroke depend on the area of the brain which is affected. But the symptoms that are a cause for concern include:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Numbness or Weakness of any part of the body
  • Loss of sensation in any part of the body
  • Deviation of mouth to one side
  • Difficulty in speaking
  • Difficulty in understanding conversation
  • Sudden visual defect in one or both eyes
  • Dizziness, giddiness, or confusion
  • Loss of balance or unexplained falls

Stroke is a serious and potentially life threatening condition---so never ignore your symptoms. In many people the symptoms may last only for a few seconds. Consult your doctor or visit an emergency room immediately if you have symptoms of stroke even if they last only for a few seconds.


Read more articles on High Blood Pressure

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