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Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Points to Remember

By  ,  National Institute of Health
Jan 07, 2013
4.8 / 5(4 Ratings)

•    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding condition in which the blood doesn't clot as it should. This is due to a low number of blood cell fragments called platelets.

•    Platelets stick together (clot) to seal small cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.

 

•    There are two types of ITP. Acute ITP is a short-term illness that mainly affects children and often occurs after a viral infection. Most children get well quickly without any treatment. Adults who have ITP most often have chronic (long-lasting) ITP. Symptoms can vary a great deal, and some adults who have mild ITP don't need treatment.

 

•    In most cases, an autoimmune response is believed to cause ITP. Normally your immune system helps your body fight off infections and diseases. But if you have ITP, your immune system attacks and destroys its own platelets. The reason why this happens isn't known.

 

•    ITP can't be passed from one person to another.

 

•    ITP can affect children and adults of all ages. Women are 2 to 3 times more likely than men to get chronic ITP.

 

•    People who have ITP may have signs of bleeding, such as bruises (purpura) that appear for no reason or tiny red dots (petechiae) that are visible on the skin.

 

•    Bleeding in ITP also occurs in the form of nosebleeds, bleeding gums, menstrual bleeding that’s heavier than usual, or other bleeding that's hard to stop. Bleeding in the brain as a result of ITP is very rare, but it can be life threatening when it occurs.

 

•    ITP is diagnosed based on your medical history, a physical exam, and results from blood tests.

 

•    Treatment for ITP is based on how much and how often you’re bleeding and your platelet count. Medicines often are used as the first course of treatment. Treatments used for children and adults are similar.

 

•    The spleen is sometimes removed if treatment with medicine fails to keep the platelet level high enough to prevent bleeding.

 

•    You can't prevent ITP, but you can prevent its complications. Talk to your doctor about what medicines are safe for you, protect yourself from injuries that can cause bruising or bleeding, and seek treatment if any signs of infection develop.

 

•    For most children and adults, ITP isn't a serious or life-threatening condition. Even people who have severe forms of chronic ITP can live for decades.

 

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