Greater social support and more frequent hugs may protect people from the increased likelihood of infection associated with stress, and result in less severe illness symptoms.
Led by Sheldon Cohen, professor of psychology in Carnegie Mellon University, researchers tested whether hugs act as a form of social support, protecting stressed people from getting sick.
Cohen and his team chose to study hugging as an example of social support because hugs are typically a marker of having a more intimate and close relationship with another person.
“We know that people experiencing ongoing conflicts with others are less able to fight off cold viruses. We also know that people who report having social support are partly protected from the effects of stress on psychological states, such as depression and anxiety,” says Cohen.
“We tested whether perceptions of social support are equally effective in protecting us from stress-induced susceptibility to infection and also whether receiving hugs might partially account for those feelings of support and themselves protect a person against infection.”
Hugs and Colds
In 404 healthy adults, perceived support was assessed by a questionnaire, and frequencies of interpersonal conflicts and receiving hugs were derived from telephone interviews conducted on 14 consecutive evenings. Then, the participants were intentionally exposed to a common cold virus and monitored in quarantine to assess infection and signs of illness.
The results, published in Psychological Science, show that perceived social support reduced the risk of infection associated with experiencing conflicts. Hugs were responsible for one-third of the protective effect of social support. Among infected participants, greater perceived social support and more frequent hugs both resulted in less severe illness symptoms whether or not they experienced conflicts.
“This suggests that being hugged by a trusted person may act as an effective means of conveying support and that increasing the frequency of hugs might be an effective means of reducing the deleterious effects of stress,” Cohen says.
“The apparent protective effect of hugs may be attributable to the physical contact itself or to hugging being a behavioral indicator of support and intimacy.”
Cohen adds, “Either way, those who receive more hugs are somewhat more protected from infection.”
In addition to Cohen, the research team included Carnegie Mellon’s Denise Janicki-Deverts, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center’s Ronald B. Turner, and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine’s William J. Doyle.
The National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute funded this research.
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